Ophthalmology is one of the important sections of medicine, since many ophthalmic diseases represent a serious medical and social problem.

In connection with the increase in the incidence of the organ of vision in general diseases of the body (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, rheumatism, tuberculosis, atherosclerosis, etc.), an increase in the level of eye trauma and surgical activity for glaucoma, cataract, retinal detachment, tumors the need for physicians-specialists who possess the skills of complex treatment of eye diseases in full and at the proper level. Therefore, in the system, the healthcare of ophthalmology is given special attention. The foregoing requires the preparation of ophthalmologists who have full and adequate skills in the comprehensive treatment of ophthalmic diseases in their diverse and diverse combinations, which dictates the need for specialists of this level. In addition, ophthalmic masters, being highly qualified specialists, will be able to carry out not only medical and preventive work, but also administrative and managerial, medical and social and organizational-methodical work.

In connection with the above, the master ophthalmologist will be in full demand in modern conditions.

 1.1. Learning Objectives:

preparation of a highly qualified specialist who knows the skills of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, as well as their complications using the latest advances in ophthalmology and modern medical technologies.

1.2.Tasks of training:

•To develop on a modern level knowledge on epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis of diseases of the organ of vision;
•to develop knowledge on the use of modern methods of diagnosis of diseases of the organ of vision;
•develop the skill of self-determination of the required volume and set of therapeutic and diagnostic activities of the eye profile;
•to teach necessary and appropriate medical and diagnostic manipulations and procedures for patients with eye diseases in outpatient and inpatient settings;
•to develop the ability to interpret the results of modern laboratory and instrumental studies of patients with eye diseases;
•to develop the skill of rendering highly skilled care at the modern level in case of urgent conditions in patients;
develop the skill of intensive care for eye diseases;
•To develop knowledge on carrying out a complex of social and labor rehabilitation activities for eye patients;
•to develop the ability to implement preventive measures to reduce the incidence of the most common eye diseases and prevent their complications.

1.3. Requirements for undergraduates in discipline.

Master in “Ophthalmology” should:

have an idea:

about modern problems and the main directions of development of medicine;
about new technologies in diagnostics and treatment of diseases of the organ of vision.
know and be able to use:

epidemiological information, the influence of etiological factors and risk factors, modern theories of pathogenesis, classifications, modern diagnostic methods, including early diagnosis, treatment regimens at various stages, primary and secondary prevention of eye diseases;
orders and normative acts of public health bodies of the Republic of Uzbekistan concerning the ophthalmological service.

Have the skill:

highly qualified questioning of ophthalmic patients;
•performance in perfect physical examination of ophthalmic patients;
•determination of the scope and set of necessary medical and diagnostic measures for ophthalmic patients;
•independent carrying out of some medical and diagnostic manipulations to patients of ophthalmological profile;
•interpretation of the results of additional studies (laboratory, morphological, functional, endoscopic, x-ray-radiological, immunological, microbiological);
•independent carrying out of complex individualized treatment of diseases of the organ of vision and some of their complications in the conditions of an advisory polyclinic, a specialized eye hospital, intensive care units and intensive care units;
•carrying out some resuscitation measures and providing emergency care in the clinic of diseases;
•development and implementation of rehabilitation activities for eye patients;
•providing advisory services to patients with ophthalmology;
•conducting medical medical records.

1.4. A list of academic disciplines and their sections necessary to study this academic discipline.

The Master’s degree in “Ophthalmology” is based on the knowledge and skills acquired in the theoretical and clinical departments during the period of study at a medical college under the general practitioner training program and includes the following:

Normal anatomy:
– features of the structure of the organ of vision;

Normal physiology:
– Features of the physiological processes of the organ of vision;

Fundamentals of pathological anatomy and histology:
– substrate pathology in diseases of the organ of vision;

Pathological physiology:
– intimate mechanisms and adaptive-compensatory reactions to damage,

– cellular, subcellular, molecular changes and patterns of disturbance of the general homeostatic parameters of the organism in diseases of the organ of vision;

– biochemical characteristics of pathological processes underlying the development of eye diseases in a complex of pathological adaptive-compensatory biochemical mechanisms of a holistic organism;

– etiological characteristics of pathogens,

– methods of identification and methods of optimal treatment of infectious pathology of the organ of vision;

Propaedeutics of internal diseases with methods of laboratory diagnostics;
Internal illnesses:
– the main syndromes and symptoms of internal diseases, and their relationship with the eye organs;

General surgery:
– Preparation of the patient for surgery, methods of sterilization,

– treatment of the hands of the surgeon,

– primary treatment of wounds,

– the imposition of surgical sutures and bandages in the eye pathology;

Fundamentals of anesthesiology and resuscitation:
– types of anesthesia,

– rendering of the first urgent help in eye pathology;

Infectious diseases:
– clinical manifestations of the most common lesions of the organ of vision in infectious diseases

– recognition, the basic principles of therapy at the prehospital and hospital stages;

– damage to the eye in tuberculosis,

– Clinic, diagnostics, principles of treatment and prevention;

– Clinic, diagnosis, principles of treatment and prevention of lesions of the eye in diabetes mellitus and other endocrinopathies;

– clinical manifestations of the most common lesions of the organ of vision in allergic symptoms and syndromes,

– diagnostics, principles of rendering emergency aid and drug therapy, prevention of drug allergy;

– anatomical proximity and two-way communication in various pathologies of ENT organs and the organ of vision;

– damage to the eye in various pathologies: syphilis, eczema, psoriasis, various dermatoses;

– diseases of the organ of vision in anemia, diagnostic criteria for hemoblastoses, principles of treatment.

Occupational diseases:
– professional poisoning, occupational diseases, diagnosis criteria, examination of work capacity.

Obstetrics and gynecology:
– features of the course and treatment of diseases of the organ of vision in pregnant women, indications for abortion, clinical and diagnostic criteria for frequently occurring gynecological diseases.

– early clinical signs of oncological diseases of the organ of vision, laboratory and instrumental criteria.

– psychosomatic syndromes in the clinic of diseases of the eye, throat and nose, iatrogenic disorders of the psyche in the treatment of diseases of the organ of vision.

Nervous diseases:
– clinical manifestations, neurological symptoms and syndromes in the clinic of diseases of the eye, throat and nose, urgent conditions in neurology.
The chair of ophthalmology has the opportunity to teach undergraduates in obtaining theoretical and practical knowledge in the relevant field of medicine. So, there is a sufficient number of patients with eye diseases in the eye departments of the II and III clinics of the Tashkent Medical Academy, in the Republican Center for Eye Microsurgery, in the eye department of the City Clinical Emergency Hospital, in the eye department of JV “BL LAZEROPTIKA” Ltd., in the center of laser eye microsurgery “SAIF-OPTIMA” “, In the clinic “Vedanta Medical”, “Sihat – Ko’z”. These clinics are equipped with the most modern medical diagnostic equipment. In these clinics, undergraduates can acquire clinical experience, and there are opportunities for performing scientific research.

However, oncological diseases of the eyes are concentrated in the onco-ophthalmological department of the scientific center of oncology. There are agreements with the above-mentioned departments and centers on the provision of a clinical and scientific base and the creation of conditions for joint training of undergraduates in the above-listed offices for a period of 5 years.

There are 10 rooms and a lecture hall for 40 people at the Department of Eye Diseases: 5 classrooms, 1 computer room, 1 cabinet for the professor, 1 for master students, 1 library and room for marathas and manaviats. In the room for undergraduates, they can engage in literature, which is available at the department, to make out medical records of patients. Seminars are held in a computer room equipped with computers connected to the Internet, TV and VCR.

The undergraduates have the opportunity to improve knowledge in the libraries of the Tashkent Medical Academy, in the republican medical fundamental library, where there are various Russian and foreign journals.

Eye clinics of Tashkent Medical Academy are deployed in 28 and 25 beds, for a year they are hospitalized with more than 1000 patients with various diseases of the organ of vision. More than 600 operations per year are carried out. This allows deeper training of undergraduates for the most common diseases of the organ of vision. Diagnostic rooms and operating units of the eye departments and centers are equipped with the most modern diagnostic devices and microscopes.

In the clinics of the Tashkent Medical Academy there are 2 archives with the histories of patients’ diseases, to which access to undergraduates is allowed. This archival material can be used to carry out the master’s thesis.

There is an opportunity for duty in the eye departments of the Tashkent Medical Academy, in the Republican Center for Eye Microsurgery and in the Eye Department of the City Clinical Emergency Hospital, according to the schedule.